The population of shrimps, especially the macrobrachium genus, has been affected with habitat pollution and overexploitation. Shrimps provide a major protein source to animals higher in the food chain. The importance of studying the ecology of shrimps in their different habitats helps in their preservation and provides possibilities of carcinoculture. This study examines diversity, ecology and reproduction parameters of fresh water shrimps of the genus macrobrachium in the basins of Lepmassoun and Ondoamedza rivers. Lepmassoun and Ondoamedza rivers form part of the larger Nyong river basin in Cameroon. In situ water physicochemical parameters were determined on site, preserved water samples used in mineral analysis and subsequent ecological health assessment. Shrimps were sampled using the scoop method with hand nets and analyzed. Sampling was done in 5 seasons distributed from January 2017 to February 2018. The results of physicochemical parameters indicate that water in the two rivers was slightly mineralized, sufficiently oxygenated and slightly turbid. It was generally a non-polluted ecological zone for shrimps. A total of 113 shrimps distributed among 14 species were collected. The shrimp population included Macrobrachium macrobrachion Macrobrachium idae, Macrobrachium rude, Macrobrachium niloticus , Macrobrachium dux Macrobrachium sp1, Macrobrachium sp2, Macrobrachium sp3,Macrobrachium sp4, Macrobrachium sp4, Macrobrachium sp5, Macrobrachium sp6, Macrobrachium sp7, Macrobrachium sp8 and Macrobrachium sp9.In the river Odoameza 11 species were collected among which Macrobrachium sp8 (26.02%) is abundant, though,in the river Lepmassoun we collected 10 species dominanced by Macrobrachium macrobrachion (22,5%). The species Macrobrachium macrobrachion is most ubiquiste throughout river Lepmassoun (%O = 83.33%) The river basin of Lepmassoun had a higher population of Macrobrachium macrobrachion with a percentage occurrence of 66.67%. then It is concluded that the water in the two river basins is of good ecological quality for shrimp survival with species Macrobrachium macrobrachion dominating in the river lepmassoun. In the river Ondoameza Macrobrachium sp8, Macrobrachium idea, Macrobrachium macrobrachion,Macrobrachium sp4 having all the percentage of occurrence (%O) of 66.67% are relatively represented. Only Macrobrachium dux have Ovigerous females in our study. This Ovigerous females ranged from 50.38 to 64.18 mm and egg size varied from 1.7 to 2 mm. The prawn attained a maximum total length and weight of 64,18 m and 2,96 g respectively. In our basins slope the Macrobrachium dux reproduces twice year during the big dry season and small dry season since production is early and the eggs are rather broad by consequence the larval development is shortened.