The coastal region of Kotania Bay located in the Western part of Seram Island is a semi-enclosed coastal area that has a unique ecosystem of mangrove ecosystems, seagrass and coral reefs that live side by side with each other. In these ecosystems there is a rich diversity of marine biological resources such as fish, molluscs, ecinoderms, crustaceans and macro-algae of economic and non-economic value. Grouper fish (Serranidae) and groups of snapper (Lutjanidae) are important economical fish that have the largest number of species in these waters. Thus, the role of coastal communities in this case grouper fisherman is very necessary in the management of grouper fish resources in the future.Therefore, this study aims to examine the socio-economic condition of grouper fishermen (Serranidae family) in the waters of Kotania Bay, West Seram, Maluku Province.Based on the results of research, the main livelihoods of people in the coast of Kotania Bay are fishermen, are in the productive age category, with a considerable level of elementary school education. The number of fishermen with <20 years' business experience is high. 55% of fishermen income> Rp. 100.000.000 and including prosperous category. Four types of traditional fishing gear are operated by fishermen in the waters of Kotania Bay to catch the economical fish, primarily grouper fish. Economical fishing areas, especially grouper fish from four fishing gear by habitat in the waters of Kotania Bay have been mapped.