Droughts and floods due to extreme climate events has caused yield loss in various regions of Indonesia, including the Provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra. An early detection model needs to be developed to anticipate the negative impacts of extreme climate event. The model may describe the association of surplus and rainfall deficits with paddy damage due to drought and flood. We used Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) to explore drought and flood characteristics in period 1989-2016. The study aimed: (i) to analyze the relationship between SPI and paddy damage due to drought and flood events, (ii) to analyze the critical value of the duration and intensity of SPI which causes paddy damage, and (iii) to determine which districts were prone to drought and flood in the Provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra. The results concluded that SPI-3 and -6 months can better describe the frequency of drought and rice flooding. In addition, drought on paddy occured mostly if the SPI was smaller than -1 which took place within 4-5 months, whereas flood occured if the SPI was greater than 1. Short duration drought (2-3 months) were observed in five districts in Aceh (2) and North Sumatra (3). On other hand, more flood districts were identified (9 districts).