Introduction. Nosocomial pneumonia (NP) is the second leading frequency and mortality among nosocomial infections. NP is a frequent complication of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The difficulty in diagnosis and monitoring of disease NP on the background of TBI is that the usual signs NP "masked" manifestations of the underlying disease.The aim of our study was to improve the diagnosis and assess the effectiveness of the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia with clarithromycin by studying of serum interleukins in patients with nosocomial pneumonia on the background of traumatic brain injury.Materials and methods. We determined levels of TNFα, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10. We examined 45 patients with isolated TBI, 44 patients with NP (standard treatment scheme), 49 patients with NP, each therapy with clarithromycin. The control group was 33 relatively healthy people.Conclusions. The study revealed a significant increase in the concentration of interleukin TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in the serum of patients with NP on the background of TBI compared with patients with isolated TBI and healthy individuals. Our study found significantly lower concentrations of interleukin TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in the serum of patients after treatment with the addition of clarithromycin compared with patients with standard therapy.