The Renewal of Islamic Education in the 19th Century Indonesia: Exploring Sayyid Usman's Thoughts. This article aims to uncover Sayyid Usman's educational reform movement in the field of Islamic education. Based on the method of content analysis of available sources, this article proposes that the idea of the renewal of Sayyid Usman is contained in his book entitled Âdâb al-Insân. This book contains a strong reflection on the basic ability of the adaptation attitude of the author who for the context at that time faced the Dutch Colonial government which was discriminatory against Islamic education. The attitude of adaptation shown by Sayyid Usman is in accordance with the theory of intercultural communication arranged in five factors: personal communication, internal communication of one culture, internal communication of different cultures, cultural acceptance and behavioral tendencies. This study shows that renewal is inseparable from adaptation skills with a solid scientific basis. It also reinforces the view that renewal is very closely linked to the wealth of intellectual traditions as shown by Sayyid Usman.