Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (Saras Covid-2): a Comprehensive Review
2021
Muhammad Waqar Mazhar, Javaria Mahmood, Saira Saif, Masooma Batool Shahzadi, Hira Aslam

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Abstract

Severe infection is cause by novel strain of coronaviruses this novel strain is related to human infecting SARS coronavirus. Coronaviruses are present in animals and transfer occur from animal (mammals) to human beings. The virus spreads from Wuhan to other Chinese cities, and then to other countries e.g. Canada, Australia, Singapore, Thailand, Japan, Malaysia and Vietnam. This virus contains functional and structural proteins and single stranded positive sense RNA molecule. SARS-Cov-2 attaches to particular receptor ACE2 in human's beings, and has its own RNA polymerase. SARS-Cov-2 genome mutation occur with environmental changes and it's become more harmful in future. The Severe acute respiratory syndrome-Cov-2 is a s.sRNA (positive sense) genome having two lateral unidentified regions, has polyprotein that is coded by a single long ORF and organized in 5' replicate arrangements then constitutional protein such as (S, E, M and N). Coronavirus genome contains 5′ untranslated region with a leader sequence of 5′, ORF 1a/b encoding functional proteins for replication, constitutional proteins with envelope, membranes and nucleoproteins, necessary proteins such as SARS-Cov-2, of 3, 6, 7a, 7b 8 and 9b, and 3′ untranslated region. For treating SARS-Cov-2, FDA approved five drugs that include penciclovir, nafamostat, chloroquine, ribavirin, nitazoxanide and two well-known antiviral drugs, favipiravir (T-705) and Remdesivir (GS5734) evaluated in- vitro for the SARS-Cov-2 clinical isolate for the purpose of checking the antiviral efficiency of these drugs against the virus. To calculate the effectiveness of the drugs on the pathogenicity, infection rate and yield of SARS-Cov-2 standard assay were carried out.

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