Journal article // eJournal Kedokteran Indonesia






Potential Transmission of Cryptosporidium SP. in Ciliwung River Water, Jakarta
August 2020  //  DOI: 10.23886/ejki.8.11581.
Meita Mahardianti, Agnes Kurniawan, Ika Puspa Sari

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Abstract

Cryptosporidium sp. is an intracellular protozoa parasite that causes diarrhea. Contaminated water supply with Cryptosporidium oocyst may cause diarrhea outbreak. Inadequate wastewater treatment facilities in Jakarta become the main cause of water contamination, even in the river that was designated for the clean water reservoir. This study aims to evaluate the Cryptosporidium sp. existence in Ciliwung river water. This study used seven samples of Ciliwung river water and was conducted in Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia in 2018. Microscopic examination using modified Ziehl-Neelsen (mZN), Auramine Phenol staining (AF), Immunofluorescent Assay (IFA) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed to detect Cryptosporidium oocyst. Oocyst enumeration was done by the IFA method. Assessment of oocyst viability was performed by the addition of 4’-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) solution to the IFA method. The results showed that Cryptosporidium oocyst found upstream and downstream of Ciliwung river water. Contamination of Cryptosporidium oocysts shows higher contamination in the downstream river. Assessment of the viability of Cryptosporidium sp. oocyst showed that Cryptosporidium oocysts in the downstream Ciliwung river water are viable, suggesting that oocysts are infectious. It can be concluded that upstream and downstream of Ciliwung river water are contaminated with Cryptosporidium sp. and potential as a source of cryptosporidiosis infection.   Potensi Transmisi Cryptosporodium sp di Sungai Ciliwung Jakarta   Cryptosporidium sp. adalah protozoa intraseluler penyebab diare. Sumber air yang terkontaminasi ookista Cryptosporidium dapat menyebabkan wabah diare. Minimnya Fasilitas pengolahan air limbah di Jakarta mengakibatkan pencemaran yang terjadi di badan-badan air, bahkan badan sungai yang diperuntukkan sebagai bahan baku air bersih telah tercemar. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi keberadaan Cryptosporidium sp. pada air sungai Ciliwung. Penelitiian dilakukan di Laboratorium Parasitologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia pada tahun 2018. Pada penelitian ini digunakan 7 sampel air sungai Ciliwung. Pemeriksaan dilakukan dengan metode mikroskopis pewarnaan modifikasi Ziehl Neelsen (mZN), auramin fenol (AF), Immunofluorescent Assay (IFA) dan metode molekuler Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) untuk deteksi ookista Cryptosporidium. Enumerasi ookista dilakukan dengan metode IFA. Penilaian terhadap viabilitas ookista, dilakukan dengan penambahan larutan 4’-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) pada metode IFA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ookista Cryptosporidium sp. ditemukan pada aliran sungai Ciliwung bagian hulu dan hilir. Kontaminasi ookista Cryptosporidium menunjukkan kontaminasi lebih tinggi pada bagian hilir. Penilaian viabilitas ookista Cryptosporidium sp. menunjukkan ookista Cryptosporidium pada air sungai Ciliwung bagian hilir bersifat viabel, menunjukkan bahwa ookista bersifat infeksius. Kesimpulan yang diperoleh adalah air sungai Ciliwung bagian hilir dan hulu terkontaminasi oleh Cryptosporidium sp. dan berpotensi sebagai sumber infeksi kriptosporidiosis.  

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