The work deals with the discussion of the issue of relations between the economy and politics and school physical education over the centuries in selected European countries and in Poland, up to the time of the political transformation. The aim of this work is to outline the relationship between the politics and economy of the state and physical education and health education. The starting point for these considerations is kalokagatia and the intellectual categories of modern and contemporary spiritual culture defining rational thinking regarding the importance of physical culture and health education for society. In every country over the centuries, regardless of the political system of exercising power – politics and economy functioned in mutual relation with education, upbringing, including models of physical culture. The foundation of physical culture in each country is the school physical education system. The task of physical education methodology is to create a rational, structural model of putting the theory into practice. Physical culture as a social phenomenon stands out from others in that its influences concern man as a whole, concern both the body and its needs as well as personality. To gain the aim the comparative analysis of physical culture and health education in democratic and totalitarian systems was held. The results of the analysis showed the asymmetry of issues between physical culture and health education in democratic and totalitarian systems in favor of the democratic system. In order to obtain the necessary information, the authors reached for rich materials and studies on totalitarian systems to get a picture of the subject. The authors attempted to synthesize the place of physical culture against the background of health education in state systems in which emphasis was placed on man and his needs. The approach to physical activity as the basis of health and preparation for combat was also shown, which was believed to be the basis for maintaining peace.