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description Journal article public Kesmas: National Public Health Journal

Model Pengendalian Faktor Risiko Stunting pada Anak Bawah Tiga Tahun

Erna Kusumawati, Setiyowati Rahardjo, Hesti Permata Sari
Published February 2015

Abstract

Stunting merupakan masalah gizi, terbukti data pemantauan status gizi Kabupaten Banyumas 2012 prevalensi stunting sebesar 28,37% dan prevalensi tertinggi (41,6%) di Puskesmas Kedungbanteng. Tujuan penelitian untuk menganalisis faktor risiko terkait faktor anak, ibu, lingkungan terhadap stunting bawah tiga tahun (batita) agar dapat dikembangkan model pengendaliannya. Penelitian menggunakan desain kasus kontrol, populasi adalah seluruh anak usia 6 sampai 36 bulan di Puskesmas Kedungbanteng Kabupaten Banyumas selama enam bulan tahun 2013. Sampel kasus adalah 50 batita stunting, sampel kontrol adalah 50 batita status normal. Teknik pengambilan sampel kasus diambil dari tujuh desa yang terbanyak stuntingnya, sedangkan kontrol adalah batita normal tetangga terdekat kasus dengan usia yang disamakan. Pengumpulan data dengan wawancara dan pengukuran. Analisis data univariat, bivariat (uji kai kuadrat), dan multivariat (uji regresi logistik ganda). Hasil penelitian menemukan karakteristik batita stunting terkena penyakit infeksi (82%), riwayat panjang badan lahir < 48 centimeter (66%), riwayat pemberian ASI dan makanan pendamping ASI kurang baik (66%), riwayat berat badan lahir rendah (8%). Pada penelitian ini, faktor risiko stunting adalah penyakit infeksi, pelayanan kesehatan, immunisasi, pengetahuan ibu, pendapatan keluarga, ketersediaan pangan keluarga, dan sanitasi lingkungan. Faktor yang paling dominan adalah penyakit infeksi. Model pengendalian stunting melalui peningkatan pemberdayaan keluarga terkait pencegahan penyakit infeksi, memanfaatkan pekarangan sebagai sumber gizi keluarga dan perbaikan sanitasi lingkungan. Model of Stunting Risk Factor Control among Children under Three Years OldStunting is a nutritional problem, proved by the evidence of nutritional status monitoring at Banyumas District in 2012, the prevalence of stunting was 28.37% and the highest prevalence 41.6% at Kedungbanteng Primary Health Care. This study aimed to analyze risk factors related to child, maternal, and environmental factors toward stunting among children under three year old in 2013 in order to develop the control model. This study used case control design, the population was all children aged of six to 36 months at Kedungbanteng Primary Health Care, Banyumas District. Sample was 50 stunting children, while the control sample was 50 normal children. Sampling technique was taken from seven villages with the highest stunting number, meanwhile the control was normal children living closest to the case with similar age. Data was collected through interview and measurement. Data analysis was conducted in univariate, bivariate (chi-square test), and multivariate analyze (multiple logistic regression test). The results found that characteristics of stunting children under three years old were often suffering infectious diseases (66%), having body length record < 48 centimeter (66%), bad records of breastfeeding and comlementary feeding (66%), and record of low birth weight (8%).Stunting risk factors in this study were infectious disease, health services, immunization, maternal knowledge, family income, family food availability, and environmental sanitation. The most dominating factor was infectious disease. The stunting control model through enhancement of family empowerment related to infectious disease prevention, utilization yard as a family nutrition source and environmental sanitation repair.

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