The purpose of this study was to obtain a theoretical model on cleanliness behavior of the urban society. This modelwas built based on the pattern of cleanliness behavior which was studied by observing the psychological factors withinthe individual and the socio-physical factors related to the participants. The indicator used to measure the cleanliness ofthe environment was the quantity of garbage scattered around the observed location. By living in the society, theresearchers could observe and investigate the occurance of cleanliness behavior in the urban region. Direct observationwas conducted in 4 (four) clean and 4 (four) dirty group of locations. Qualitative methods were used to process theinformation from those groups, in order to get significant information regarding the differences and similarities fromthose locations. The result showed that society's day-to-day collective action toward garbage created a pattern ofcleanliness behavior that is relatively permanent. A series of collective actions which were not in accordance with thecommunal motive formed cleanliness behavior pattern "X" and created a condition of dirty environment. Meanwhile,the other series of collective actions which were in accordance with the communal motives formed cleanliness behaviorpattern "Y". The collective efforts of the society in a particular region to form cleanliness behavioral pattern "Y" isknown as Program Kebersihan (Cleanliness Program).