Regional autonomy has grown out of control. In the decade from 1999, Indonesia has acquired seven new provinces, 194 districts, and 34 cities - a total of 204 new polities. This is quite a proliferation compared to the 54 years before autonomy, when only 319 autonomous areas were created. A Ministry of Home Affairs evaluation shows that 80 percent of these new areas fail due to their lack of preparation or readiness for autonomy. This book describes the factors for successful autonomy including timing, geography and demography, along with the institutional dimensions including defense and security, socio-cultural and political, economic, financial, and administrative infrastructure. Proper preparation of the institutional and administrative infrastructure is needed to increase the likelihood of stability and prosperity in autonomous regions.