Although nationally the HIV epidemic in Indonesia is still concentrated on vulnerable populations, the negative impacts of AIDS for infected people and their families have the potential to become catastrophic because the infected people are mostly economically productive and HIV and AIDS in Indonesia are disproportionally experienced by poor families. A variety of attempts to reduce mortality rates related to HIV and AIDS have been undertaken, however, the attempts to mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS on families have not received sufficient attention from AIDS program in Indonesia. Lack of concern regarding social protection of the PLHIV and their families in turn will impede the government's attempts to reduce poverty and provide universal access to health care. Social protection is basically all efforts that are directed to provide income or consumption to the poor group, to protect the vulnerable groups from various risks that affect their welfare, and to strengthen the social rights and status of the marginalized groups. The goal of social protection is to reduce social and economic vulnerability of the poor and marginalized groups. As a means of social protection endeavors, different kinds of social insurance and social assistance have been promoted in Indonesia. In particular, Public Health Insurance (Jamkesmas) has been developed as a national social insurance that aims to overcome economic impact of health care cost for poor communities in Indonesia. Additionally, a number of local governments at the provincial and district/municipality levels have developed local health insurance (Jamkesda/Jamkesos) as a form of local government's responsibility in health decentralization.