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description Journal article public Jurnal Budidaya Pertanian

Identifikasi dan Kemampuan Jamur Endofitik Asal Jagung (Zea Mays L.) terhadap Patogen Busuk Pelepah (Rhyzoctonia Solani)

Shiska M. Rotasouw, Johanna Taribuka, Handry R. D. Amanupunyo
Published 2020

Abstract

Maize is a cereal crop which is an important source of food because it is the second source of carbohydrates after rice. Maize cultivation is faced with various plant diseases, that can reduce the quantity and quality of crop yield. Plant disease is one of the limiting factors for crop production and seed quality. One of the most harmful maize diseases is blight or midrib rot caused by the soil-borne fungus Rhizoctonia solani. The aim of the study was to obtain endophytic microorganisms in maize and to test the antagonistic ability of these fungi as biological control agents against R. solani. The study took place in January-September 2018 in the field and the Laboratory of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Pattimura. Endophytic fungi isolated from maize plants from the roots, stems and leaves. Samples were cleaned in running water and air-dried. Subsequently, the samples were sterilized using 70% alcohol and immersed in sodium hypochlorite solution for 2 minutes and rinsed with sterile water 3 times. The sterilized roots, stems and leaves of maize were peeled, cut to a size of ±5 mm, split and dried on sterile filter paper. Sterile samples were grown on PDA culture media at four points and incubated at room temperature. Visual identification was carried out with the aid of a microscope on fungi growing on the culture media. The results showed the presence of the endophytic fungi Trichoderma sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Diplodia sp. and Mucor sp. These fungal species showed different inhibitory powers, which included mechanisms for direct parasitizing of pathogens, producing antibiotics and competition for space and nutrients. Keywords: antagonism, corn, endophytic fungi, identification, pathogenic fungus, Rhizoctonia solani  

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