Population 15 Years and Over by Educational Attainment and Activities During the last week, 1986-1996 (Indonesia)

Dataset Statistics Indonesia • April 2016 Indonesia

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This dataset is part of the BPS Employment Series.


  1. Working age popolation: persons of 15 years old and over.

  2. Labor force: persons of 15 years old and over who, in the previous week, were working, temporarily absent from work but having jobs, and those who did not have work and were looking for work.

  3. Not in labor force: persons aged 15 years and over, but not classified in labor force, such as students, housekeepers, or others exclude personal activity.

  4. Working: an activity done by a person who worked for pay or assisted others in obtaining pay or profit for the duration at least one hour during the survey week. Include an unpaid worker who help an economically activity/ business.

  5. Temporarily absent from work, but having job: an activity done by a person who had a job, but was temporarily absent from work for some reasons during the survey week, i.e: sick, on leave, waiting for harvest season, on strike etc. 

    1. Employee, government employee/private employee who had not been working for reasons such as on leave, sick, on strike, damage machine/equipments, etc.

    2. Farmers who had not coltivated their field because of illness or waiting for the next harvest season or waiting for the rainy season to coltivate their field.

    3. Professional worker who had not been working because of illness, waiting for the next job/order, etc. Such as puppeteer, barber, masseur, medicine man, singer, etc.

  6. Unemployment, which consists of: 

    1. Person without work but looking for work.

    2. Person without work who have established a new business/firm.

    3. Person without work who were not looking for work, because they do not expect to find work.

    4. Person who have made arrangements to start work on a date subsequent to the reference period (future starts).

    Looking for work is a person which during the survey that is looking for work, such as:

    1. Those who never work and looking for a work.

    2. Those who had work, but resigned or dismissed from her/his work because of some reasons and trying for looking a work.

    3. Those who work or have a job, but still trying to looking for another job because of some reasons.

    This activity is not limited to a week during survey period, but for those who have been trying to looking for a job who sent the application for more than a week before the survey is considered for looking for a job as long as still expecting a job last week. For those who are working and still trying to looking for work is not categorized as unemployment. 

    Person who established a new business/firm is he/she who established a new business/firm in obtaining profit at his/her own risk with or without paid or unpaid worker.

    Meaning if they do a real as their effort such as: collecting capitals, preparing equipments, looking for business location, applying for business permission letter, that had been done or being done by someone.

    This activity does not include persons who just have plans to do, intend, or following a course/training to prepare a business/firm. In this case commonly for those who want to be worker or employer on their own account assisted by temporary worker/unpaid worker or employer assisted by permanent worker/paid worker.

    Explanation: This effort is not only during previous weeks, but coold have been done some time ago but still trying to establish the new business/firm in the previous week.

  7. TPT (Unemployment Rate) is percentage of unemployment to the number of labor force.

  8. Less than Normal Working Hours: is a person who worked under the normal working hours (less than 35 hours a week). It consist of:

    1. Underemployment: is a person who worked under the normal working hours (less than 35 hours a week), and is still looking for a job or available for work (it’s called involuntary underemployment).

    2. Part-time Worker: is a person who worked under the normal working hours (less than 35 hours a week), but he is not looking for a job or unavailable for work (it’s called voluntary underemployment). 

  9. Students : persons who were regolarly attending a formal school (exclude students who were on school holidays).

  10. Housekeepers: persons who were engaged in household duties in their own home, or persons who helped in managing household chores without payment, e.g. housewives and their children who are doing household work. However, an activity undertaken by a servant is considered as “work”.

  11. Others: persons performing activities other than the ones mentioned above, such as retirement and those who are disabled (deaf, mute, etc).

  12. Educational attainment: the highest educational level completed by a person, verified with the receipt of a diploma or a letter of completion/certificate.
  13. Total working hours: in a week refer to total hours used by an employee to do his/her job during a calendar week (excluding the time used for other activities which are not classified as “work”).

    Total working hours for street vendor merchant is calcolated from them leaving for work until they go back home but must be deducted by other activities like visit of relatives or friend house.

  14. Industry: refers to the activity of the place of work/company/office in which a person is employed, classified according to the Indonesian Standard Industrial Classification (KBLI) 2009.

  15. Occupation: refer to the type of work carried out by a particolar respondent, classified according to the KBJI 2002 which referred to ISCO 88.

  16. Net Wage/Salary, is a net wage/salary normally collected for a period of 1 month from a enterprise/company/employer. This net wage/salary is after deduction of compolsory contribution, income tax etc by enterprise/company/employer.

  17. Employment status is the status of a person at the place where he/she works. There are eight different categories:

    1. Own-account worker, is a person who works at her/his own risk without assisted by paid per mount worker or unpaid worker include technical job or skill job.

    2. Employer assisted by temporary workers/unpaid worker, a person who works at her/his own risk and assisted by temporary worker/unpaid worker.

    3. Employer assisted by permanent workers/paid workers, is a person who does his/her business at her/his own risk at least one assisted by paid permanent worker.

    4. Employee, is a person who work permanently for other people or institution/office/company and gains some money/cash or goods as wage/salary. Labor who have no permanent employer is not categorized as a laborer/ worker/employee but casual worker. A laborers, in general is considered to have a permanent employer if he has the same employer during the past month, particolarly for building construction sector is 3 months. If the employer is an institution, more than 1 (one) is allowed.

    5. Casual employee in agricolture, is a person who does not work permanently for other people/employer/ institution (more than 1 employer during the last 1 month) in agricoltural sector either home industry or not home industry based on remuneration paid with money or goods, and based on daily or contact payment system. Agricoltural industry covers food-based agricoltural, plantation, forestry, livestock, fishery, hunting, including agricoltural services.

    6. Employer is a person who gives a job with an agreement payment.

    7. Casual employee not in agricolture, is a person who does not work permanently for other people/employer/ institution (more than 1 employer during then past 1 month) in non agricoltural and gets money or goods as wage/salary either based on daily or contract payment system. Those sectors include non agricoltural sector: mining, manufactures, electricity, gas and water, construction, trade, transportation, storage, and communication, financing, insurance, real estate, and business services, community, social, and personal services.

    8. Family/Unpaid worker, is a person who works for other people without pay in cash or goods.Those unpaid workers coold be:
      • Family member who works for another person in their family i.e: wife or child who help their husband or father work in field and unpaid.

      • Not a family member who works for another person but still having family relations, such as those who help their family relatives to sell in a minimarket and unpaid.

      • Other persons outside of family members nor family relatives who work for another person, such as a person who weaves hats for their neighbours home industry and unpaid.


The main source of employment data is National Labour Force Survey (Sakernas). This survey is specifically designed to collect information on labour force statistics. Previously, the collection of such data was integrated with other surveys, such as National Socio-Economic Survey (Susenas), Population Census (SP), and Inter-censal Population Survey (SUPAS).

The first Sakernas was conducted in 1976, then conducted anually during the period 1977-1978. During 1986-1993, Sakernas was conducted quarterly in all provinces in Indonesia, only since 1994 until 2001 Sakernas was conducted yearly, every  August of the year. During the period 2002-2004, besides a yearly Sakernas, BPS also conducted a quarterly Sakernas. During the period 2005-2010, Sakernas has been conducted in semester period, i.e February (Semester I) and August (Semester II).

In 2011 Sakernaswas conducted back on a quarterly basis which is: February (First Quarter), May (Second Quarter), August (Third Quarter), and November (Fourth Quarter). A Quarterly Sakernas is aimed to monitor the prompt indicators of Indonesian labour market which referred to the Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM) recommended by ILO (the International Labour Organization). The results of Sakernas for first quarter, second quarter , and fourth quarter was presented at the province level (sampel size 50,000 households). The results of Sakernas for the third quarter was published up to regency/municipality level, as the sample size was quite big around 200,000 households, that consist of 50,000 households from quarterly sample and 150,000 households were addition sample package.


The main information collected in The National Labor Force Survey are data on individual household members covering persons aged 10 years and older. However tabulated data covers household members aged 15 years and older.

Data on individual household members consist of: 

  1. Member identification: name, relation to the head of household, sex, age, marital status and educational attainment. Activities during last week: working, (at least an hour for a week), temporarily not working, looking for work/established a new business/firm, attending school, doing housekeeping and others (retired, incapacitated, etc).

  2. For those who were working: and temporarily absent from work but having jobs (such as: on leave) they are asked for main total working day, total number of hours of work, industry, occupation, employment status, and total wage/salary in month.

  3. For those who were looking for job or established a new business/firm: they are asked for the main reason for looking a job/established a new business/firm, type of effort to find out a job/established a new business/firm, the duration of looking for job or established a new business/firm, and type of job (for full or part-time).




Statistics Indonesia

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