Potensi Galur-Galur Harapan Wijen Di Lahan Sawah Sesudah Padi

Hadi Sudarmo • Rully Dyah Purwati • Djumali Djumali
Journal article Buletin Tanaman Tembakau, Serat dan Minyak Industri • October 2012 Indonesia

Abstract

Wijen (Sesamum indicum L.) merupakan komoditas yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku aneka indus-tri dan minyak makan. Di Indonesia, wijen dibudidayakan di lahan kering pada musim penghujan dengan pro-duktivitas rata-rata pada tahun 2005 sebesar 420 kg. Peningkatan produksi wijen nasional dapat ditempuh dengan memperluas pengembangan wijen ke lahan sawah sesudah padi. Upaya tersebut perlu didukung dengan perakitan varietas unggul. Dari kombinasi hasil persilangan sudah terpilih 11 galur harapan, selanjutnya untuk mengetahui potensi hasil dan daya adaptasi galur-galur tersebut terhadap lingkungan, dilakukan uji multilokasi di tiga lokasi masing-masing tiga musim tanam. Pengujian menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok diulang tiga kali dengan ukuran petak 6 m x 8 m. Data hasil biji dianalisis ragam gabungan, untuk uji stabilitas mengikuti metode Eberhart dan Russell, dan untuk mengetahui daya adaptasi galur dilakukan ploting data menggunakan metode Finlay dan Wilkinson. Penelitian menghasilkan tiga galur unggul yang berpotensi hasil tinggi yakni 99002/7/3, 99001/9/1, dan 99003/11/10 dengan potensi hasil masing-masing 2.222 kg/ha, 1.933 kg/ha, dan 1.874 kg/ha. Galur 99002/7/3 dan 99001/9/1 beradaptasi umum di semua lingkungan, sedangkan galur 99003/11/10 beradap-tasi khusus pada lingkungan suboptimal. Delapan galur yang lain berpotensi hasil lebih rendah yaitu 99002/7/10 beradaptasi umum di semua lingkungan, sedangkan 99001/15/2, 99001/9/7, 99001/15/4, 99002/7/5, 99001/8/3, 99001/10/9, dan 99003/28/5 tidak mempunyai kemampuan adaptasi terhadap semua lingkungan. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is a potential commodity that has essential as raw material for varying indus-try and edible oil. In Indonesia, sesame is commonly cultivated in dry land during rainy season with the pro-ductivity as much as 420 kg/ha in 2005. Increasing national sesame production can be reached by expand-ing the development area into the paddy fields after rice. To increase productivity, it has to be supported by high yielding varieties. Eleven promising lines had been selected for multilocation trials. This trial aimed to determine yield potential and adaptability of these promising lines on the environment. The multilocation trials were conducted at three locations and each on three seasons. The trials used a randomized block de-sign with three replications plot size was 6 m x 8 m. The yield was observed and analysed using combining analysis, then the stability of each line was further analysed using the method of Eberhart and Russell. To determine the lines adaptability, the data were plotted using the method of Finlay and Wilkinson. Result shows that there are three superior lines i.e. 9002/7/3, 99001/9/1, and 99003/11/10 which have potential produc-tion 2,222 kg/ha, 1,933 kg/ha and 1,874 kg/ha respectively, lines 99002/7/3 and 99001/9/1 common in all environments, whereas line 99003/11/10 was unstable and had a specific adaptability in suboptimal environments. Eight other lines that could potentially yield lower 99002/7/10 common in all environments, while 99001/15/2, 99001/9/7, 99001/15/4, 99002/7/5, 99001/8/3, 99001/10/9, and 99003/28/5 do not have the ability to adapt to all environments.

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Buletin Tanaman Tembakau, Serat dan Minyak Industri

Buletin Tanaman Tembakau, Serat dan Minyak Industri adalah jurnal ilmiah nasional yang dikelola o... see more