Five of 29 species of Rhododendron of Sulawesi are threatened and two of them have endangered status (EN D). Field work assessment conducted to measure the current population size of endangered R. eymae and R. nanophyton var. nanophyton. One hundred and forty plots (5x5 m2) along seven transects were made around the summit of Mt. Rantemario (3,269-3,445 m asl.), South Sulawesi. The result found that there were 318 individuals of R. eymae and two individuals of R. nanophyton var. nanophyton within the plots. We also found that estimated population sizes of those two species have not meet with the criteria that previously stated (EN D). The proper status for both species were Vulnerable (VU D2). The reason behind were discussed. While, dominated shrubs and herbs on the summit area of Mt. Rantemario were Leptospermum javanicum Blume (IVI=37.08), Eriocaulon truncatum Buch.-Ham. ex Mart (IVI=34.83), and Styphelia suaveolens (Hook.f.) Warb. (IVI=24.63). The association of those three plants with the Rhododendrons were analysed.