Today, the national interests of Ukraine need the immediate development and implementation of a set of measures to ensure the efficient use of available resources for economic progress, increase and strengthen the defense potential (DP) and military-economic potential (MEP) of the state. Research of problems of estimation and balanced development of MEP of the state is one of the main components of problems of further development of Ukraine as a whole. The authors of the article made an attempt to reveal the essence of the concepts of DP and MEP of the state from the standpoint of military science. The main theoretical aspects of the formation of DP and MEP of the state in the modern conditions of development of the Armed Forces (AF) of Ukraine and Ukraine as a whole will form the basic principles of understanding these concepts and their components, determine their relationship in modern military science, and choose the main directions of research on this topic. The analysis of MEP and especially its active part (military economy) shows that the state of economic support of the Ukrainian Armed Forces currently has significant differences between its needs and the attention paid by the state leadership to its resource provision. One of the main problems of this state of affairs is quite significant uncertainties in the methodological aspects of its interpretation and evaluation. Today, the main tasks of improving the institutional and management mechanism of state leadership for the development of the countryʼs security include the need to modernize the procedures for managing military and economic activities, including military financing systems, pricing of military products and more. But it is possible to implement in the current conditions of development of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and Ukraine as a whole only in the case of improving the existing procedures for assessing the adequacy of MEP and DP of the state for the main components of their operation.