In the Armed Forces of Ukraine, work continues to improve the efficiency of defense planning and defense resource management. The algorithm of defense planning for the development of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, step by step, uses the results of the analysis of the experience of the leading countries of the world, which have moved from defense planning based on threats to defense planning, focused on the achievement by troops (forces) of the capabilities necessary to perform the tasks assigned to them, taking into account economic opportunities of the country. The list of tasks of the Armed Forces of Ukraine is determined based on the likely scenarios of their use. One of the key points in the effective planning of the use of the Armed Forces according to the corresponding scenario is the correct, reasonable determination of the amount of necessary defense resources (human, material, technical, financial). At the current stage of the transformation of the defense planning system into NATO standards and the application of the planning method based on capabilities, it is necessary to improve the content and algorithm for assessing the military-economic capabilities of the state for the effective development of its own armed forces, which are one of the main factors in ensuring the necessary level of military-economic security of the country in the whole. The effectiveness of the assessment depends on the completeness and quality of assessments of the main military-economic factors affecting the development of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. In the article, the authors offered their views on improving the existing approaches to calculating the amount of necessary defense resources for the effective development of the Armed Forces, and also identified the main economic factors that affect it. The detailed analysis of the military-economic conditions for the development of the armed forces of the countries of the world and Ukraine in the period 2012-2021, carried out in the article, made it possible to form ratings of the military-economic conditions for the development of the armed forces of these countries and Ukraine. The obtained assessment results, in turn, made it possible to determine their impact on the adequacy of the level of military-economic security of each country, taking into account the existing probable military and economic threats.