; "> Being the most misunderstood term, jihad has been misconstrued by orientalists and Muslims alike.The misconception of jihad can be attributed to not only severely substantialist or textualist reading ofthe Qur'an and Hadith, but also misinterpretation of the history of jihad being in practice during theearly generation of Muslims. The comprehensive reading of texts on jihad in the Qur'an and Hadithhas to be accompanied by an accurate and objective reading on how jihad was put in practice by theProphet Muhammad, the Companions and the Successors, and then how it was practiced during thesubsequent periods (medieval, modern and contemporary), particularly in order to know in whichcontext jihad has been regarded as a spiritual, ethical and moral struggle (jihad akbar), and in what kindof context it has been practiced as a physical struggle in a war (jihad asghar). In that way, jihad would notbe misunderstood and, on the contrary, be appropriately connected with its contexts. The dynamics ofthe implementation of jihad has been influenced by different socio-historical factors, such as politicalrealities facing Muslims in different periods. This essay seeks to explore how the practice of jihad haschanged over time in Muslim history, from the time of the Prophet to the modern day Indonesiamarked by vibrant Muslim movements.