Genetic knowledge of loci controlling Al toxicity tolerance is the key for a successful breeding program in developing Altolerant cultivars. Tolerance level of crop plants to Al toxicity is genetically controlled. The gene inheritance pattern is mainlyresulted from intensive studies of cereal crops, such as wheat, sorghum, maize, and rice. The trait can be controlled by asingle dominant gene, a single dominant gene with many alleles, a pair of dominant genes, or by many genes (QTL). Themajority of the Al tolerance genes identified so far belongs to two independent groups of gene families, i.e. aluminumactivatedmalate transporter (ALMT) and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE), both encoding transport proteinsinvolved in Al-activated organic acid release, mainly citrate and malate. The variations in Al toxicity tolerance phenotypes arestrongly correlated with the expressions of such genes in the root apical cells. Many Al tolerance QTLs have been mapped inthe genomes of various crop species and were found to be colocated with the ALMT and MATE genes. The genetic maps ofthe Al tolerance genes and QTLs facilitate breeding programs for developing Al-tolerant cultivars through marker-assistedbreeding methods. Al tolerance genes that have been isolated from genetically unrelated species can be used in genetictransformation studies of crop genotypes sexually incompatible to the gene source genotypes. The application of thesemolecular breeding methods expedites breeding programs to develop crop cultivars tolerance to Al toxicity and acid soils.Genomic technologies by using next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping system accelerate Al toxicitytolerance gene and QTL discoveries of various crop species. The modern genomic technologies also facilitate morecomprehensive PGR characterization and utilization to accelerate identification and isolation of the Al tolerance genes andQTLs to be used in a more comprehensive breeding program to support national food self sufficiency and food securityprograms.