Ndonesian capacity to produce food is declining and becoming more volatile, and will likely to continue given plausible future changes in the global environment without appropriate policies on issues such as agricultural technologies, climate change, energy and globalization. To address this, there is a need for Indonesian agricultural policy review and identification of areas requiring assistance with quality policy analysis related to maintaining sustainable economic growth in the face of growing global economic and environmental pressures. Australia also needs to be aware of possible impacts of plausible futures in such issues and to have policies in place that will facilitate adjustment processes and assist economic development. At international meetings in recent years, the ACIAR Director and IFPRI have discussed the need for and benefits of an Indonesian agricultural policy review and identification of areas requiring assistance with quality policy analysis addressing sustainable economic growth. During a recent scoping study to Indonesia on the project, the Minister of Trade specifically asked for assistance on the impact and policy responses to climate change on trade as will be researched in this project. Senior officials in the MoA stated that not only is the longer-term situation important but having some independent analysis including longer-term impacts of key current policies such as on rice before 2009, involving concerted on-the-job training of Indonesian researchers, would be extremely useful in developing better analyzed policies.