Karakteristik Buah Pisang Lahan Rawa Lebak Kalimantan Selatan Serta Upaya Perbaikan Mutu Tepungnya

S. S. Antarlina • H. Dj Noor • S. Umar • I. Noor
Journal article Jurnal Hortikultura • June 2005 Indonesia

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(Bahasa Indonesia, 11 pages)

Abstract

Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik buah pisang mentah dari pertanaman di lahan rawa lebak Kalimantan Selatan, serta teknologi perbaikan mutu dan daya simpan gaplek dan tepung pisang. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Fisiologi Hasil, Balai Penelitian Pertanian Lahan Rawa, Banjarbaru, pada bulan Juli-Desember 2002. Rancangan percobaan acak kelompok faktorial. Faktor I adalah dua varietas pisang (kepok dan awa). Faktor II adalah teknik pengirisan buah pisang, yaitu (1) sawut membujur, bagian tengah dibuang (cara petani), (2) iris tipis membujur, (3) sawut melintang, (4) iris tipis melintang, (5) iris tipis diagonal. Buah pisang dipilih pada tingkat kemasakan mature green (hijau tapi tua), buah masih keras dan kulit hijau. Setelah karakterisasi mutu buah pisang, dilakukan pembuatan gaplek dan tepung pisang serta penyimpanan dalam bentuk gaplek dan tepung menggunakan pengemas kantong plastik PE tebal 0,04 mm rangkap dua, selama 5 bulan penyimpanan pada kondisi kamar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pisang kepok dan awa dari pertanaman di lahan rawa lebak, mempunyai berat tandan antara 4,12-18,5 kg (pisang kepok), lebih besar daripada awa (2,1-8,8 kg). Namun, pisang kepok mempunyai kulit lebih tebal (44,35%) daripada pisang awa (33,28%), sehingga persentase daging buah (55,65%) lebih sedikit daripada awa (66,72%). Kadar air, pati, gula total buah pisang kepok masing-masing sebesar 59,83; 24,01 dan 4,16% bb (basis basah), pisang awa masing-masing sebesar 62,87; 20,07; dan 9,99% bb. Teknik iris tipis diagonal menghasilkan rendemen lebih tinggi dan meningkat sebesar 7,88% dari cara petani dengan teknik sawut bagian tengah dibuang. Selama 5 bulan penyimpanan, terjadi peningkatan kadar air sebesar 3,19% bb untuk gaplek dan 1,07% bb untuk tepung. Implikasinya, guna pengembangan industri tepung pisang khususnya di lahan rawa lebak Kalimantan Selatan, pengolahan tepung pisang disarankan pengirisan buah dengan teknik iris tipis, kemudian tepung pisangnya dapat disimpan cukup lama dalam kantong plastik.Characteristic of banana fruit origin from monotonous swampland in South Kalimantan and the efforts to improve the quality of banana flour. The objectives of the research were to find out the characteristics of mature green banana fruit origin from banana plantation in monotonous swampland in South Kalimantan, and technology to improve the quality and storage of dried banana chip (gaplek) and banana flour. This research conducted in Postharvest Laboratory, Research Institute for Swampland Agriculture, Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan, on July-December 2002. The treatment arranged in factorial randomized block design, with three replications. The first factor was two banana varieties (kepok and awa). The second factor was slicing techniques of banana fruit, they are (1) shredded in lengthwise, discard the fruit core (farmer technique); (2) sliced in lengthwise; (3) shredded in crosswise; (4) sliced in crosswise; and (5) sliced in diagonal shape. Mature green banana fruit was choosen for flour processing. After characterization, the fruit was processed to dried banana and flour. The dried banana and flour were stored using double PE plastic bag 0.04 mm thickness for 5 months at ambient conditions. The results showed that, fruit bunch weight of kepok was 4.12-18.5 kg, heavier than awa (2.1-8.8 kg). Kepok has thicker fruit skin (44.35%) compared to awa (33.28%). Therefore the flesh of kepok is 55.65% lower than awa (66.72%). The moisture, starch, and total sugar of kepok were 59.83; 24.01, and 4.16% wb (wet basis), respectively, and awa were 62.87; 20.07, and 9.99% wb, respectively. Diagonal shape of slicing technique produced higher yield recoveries of banana flour 7.88% higher compare to farmer technique. The quality of dried banana and flour on 5 months storage, still moderately good, and the moisture content increased as much as 3.19% wb for dried banana and 1.07% wb for banana flour. The implication is to develop banana flour industry espesialy at monotonous swampland area in South Kalimantan, it is suggested to use diagonal slices technique, and store the banana flour in plastic bag.

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Jurnal Hortikultura

Jurnal Hortikultura (J.Hort) memuat artikel primer yang bersumber dari hasil penelitian hortikul... see more