Maritime aspects in the western part of Indonesia are known from the presence of shell mound sites, which show Mesolithic characteristics and elements of Hoabinhian Culture. The shell mound sites along the east coast of Sumatra Island reveal that coastal areas were very important in providing for life in the past because of the marine biota that can be exploited. The Hoabinhian Culture on highland areas also bears traces of maritime aspects. Likewise are the Neolithic and sites that dispersed on highland areas. Various kinds of mollusks were still exploited on the highlands. Even the religions and social structures that bear maritime characteristics were still preserved. The attempt to recognize the maritime aspects during the periods is done by determining various artifacts, ecofacts, and other finds in relation with the marine environment, as well as through ethnoarchaeology studies by observing patterns of meaningsin the cultures of several traditional communities in the western part of Indonesia. The effort to determine archaeological objects, supported by ethnoarchaeology studies, will portray various maritime aspects that can be recognized through the aspects of the environment, biota, religion, technology, aesthetic, and other social aspects.